Old Testament

Pharaoh Shishak as Pharaoh Shoshenq I

Late in the reign of Solomon ca. 943 BC, a new Pharaoh named Shoshenq I arose in Egypt, although his interactions were with Solomon’s successors rather than Solomon himself (1 Kings 11:40). Shoshenq I continued to reign after the death of Solomon and into the early period of the Divided Kingdom. This king of Egypt appears around the time of the kings Jeroboam of Israel and Rehoboam of Judah, who were the first kings after the death of Solomon and the split of the kingdom into north and south. In absolute chronology, this is sometime around roughly 930 BC.

The Ancient Egyptian Setting of the Joseph Story

Analysis of the Joseph story reveals details of the narrative that demonstrate a setting in ancient Egypt and even suggest a specific time known as the 2nd Intermediate Period. The account begins with a clear distinction between Joseph and his brothers, apparent by happenings such as Jacob giving Joseph a tunic of many colors (Genesis 37:3). Tunics of many colors were in style during the Middle Bronze Age in Canaan, as exhibited by the clothing of migrants from Canaan depicted on the walls of the Tomb of Khnumhotep II (Newberry, Beni Hasan).

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